Summary: Hosts function as patchy islands of habitat for parasites. The balance between the colonization and extinction of parasites on individual hosts helps determine the abundance of parasites in host populations. Parasite-host systems, therefore, are useful model systems for understanding how colonization, competition, and habitat age (in this case the age of the host) influence the number, distribution, and turnover of species in island-like systems.
I use a combination of field and laboratory experiments to understand how features of Eastern Mudsnail (Tritia obsoleta) populations (i.e., distribution, movement, and size structure) interact with the biology of their trematode parasites (i.e., colonization and competition) to determine patterns in parasite composition in snail populations in a range of estuaries, including Waquoit Bay.
In New England, nine trematode species use the Eastern Mudsnail as a first host. These worms impact the snail host in a number of ways – they can change its behavior, and they also destroy its reproductive tissue, leaving the snail host sterile. My research provides important information on the dynamics of estuarine parasites in this system, which can lead to insight on ecosystem health. Since trematodes use multiple hosts from a broad range of taxa to complete their life cycle, the presence of more parasite species is a useful indicator of diverse estuarine community overall. This work also has broader application to successional and metacommunity theory, by testing fundamentals of how biological and habitat processes shape species composition in landscapes with isolated habitat patches.
Project Title: Investigating the effect of salinity on mud crab parasite communities
Principal Investigator(s): Carolyn Tepolt, Zachary Tobias
Affiliations: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Department of Biology
Summary: The flatback mud crab, Eurypanopeus depressus, is a common estuarine crustacean from the Gulf of Mexico to New England. It is affected by a range of parasites that may vary with the environment. The goal of this project is to characterize the parasite communities within E. depressus along salinity gradients throughout the Northeast. Studies have shown that some crab species may use low salinity water as refuges from marine parasites. We will investigate how these crabs may have adapted to low salinity in response to pressures from parasitism using ecological field surveys and transcriptomic analyses.
Project Title: NOAA’s Northeast Fisheries Science Center Unmanned Aerial Systems Training
Principal Investigator(s): Mike Jech, Kimberly Murray, Lisa Conger, Elizabeth Josephson, Jennifer Johnson
Affiliations: NOAA NMFS, Integrated Statistics
Summary: NOAA’s Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) has a small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS, aka “drone”) program (four pilots). We fly a multirotor APH-22 built by Aerial Imaging Solutions (http://aerialimagingsolutions.com) that is battery powered and has a flight time of about 15 minutes. The entire system consists of a base station and the APH-22 and requires two personnel to fly. Our field operations focus on marine species such as schooling fish, whales, and seals that can be imaged from the air. UAS technology is rapidly evolving, and we are constantly upgrading our systems with new sensors and platform modifications. These advancements require testing and evaluation of these new features, and improving our team’s capabilities. Our flights on NERR will help maintain our pilots’ flight skills, and further innovate the UAS research done at the NEFSC and NOAA.
Project Title: Sex change in sequentially hermaphroditic slipper limpets
Lead Investigator: Maryna Lesoway
Affiliation: MBL Whitman Fellow, University of Illinois at Champaign Urbana (home institution)
Funding Source(s): MBL Whitman Fellowship, Fonds de recherche du Québec Nature et Technologie (FRQNT) Postdoctoral Fellowship, NSF
Unlike most animals, slipper limpets change sex from male to female as they grow. This is thought to be a way to increase the reproductive output of these sedentary, filter-feeding snails. However, the developmental mechanisms are poorly known, even though sex change in these animals has been studied for more than a century. Comparing development in the slipper limpets Crepidula fornicata, Crepidula convexa, and Crepidula plana, I will explore the developmental origins of the reproductive system, development of the reproductive organs, and the transition from male to female using developmental techniques including lineage tracing and cell ablation, as well as pharmacological manipulations to induce sex change.
PI: Scott Lindell, Scientific Aquaculture Program, MBL. Funding: WHOI-Seagrant
Description: Nutrient enrichment from septic systems is one of the most pressing coastal problems on Cape Cod. Towns are facing staggering costs for sewering and other solutions. This project aims to investigate whether a native seaweed, Gracilaria tikvahiae, can be co-farmed together with oysters to both soak up nutrients and produce a marketable crop.